Email Fresh vegetables and fruits at a farmer's market Diets lean on meat and rich in healthy fats like olive oil were most effective at promoting weight loss and lowering blood sugar among people with diabetes in a review of evidence from the last 10 years.
Johns Hopkins Medicine Summary: People with pre-diabetes who lose roughly 10 percent of their body weight within six months of diagnosis dramatically reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next three years, according to new research. Share: FULL STORY People with pre-diabetes who lose roughly 10 percent of their body weight within six months of diagnosis dramatically reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes over the next three years, according to results of research led by Johns Hopkins scientists. Substantial weight loss in the short term clearly should go a long way toward preventing diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes -- marked by excess sugar in the blood -- can lead to eye, kidney and nerve damage, as well as cardiovascular disease.
Benefits were also seen with diets low in carbohydrates, high in protein or low in simple sugars. More than 24 million Americans have type 2 diabetes.
People with the disease cannot store glucose in their cells effectively, and their blood sugar levels can go dangerously high. Lifestyle changes like weight loss and cutting calorie intake can improve blood sugar control and reduce the risk of complications from the disease, but it has not been clear which diet plans work best.
A few studies in literature, however, reported metabolic benefits and sustainability of carbohydrate restricted diets.
Ajala and her colleagues reviewed the results of 20 studies comparing the effect of seven popular diets on adults with type 2 diabetes. Mediterranean diets, low-carb diets, high-protein diets and low glycemic index diets - which rank foods by how quickly their carbs turn into glucose - all lowered participants' blood sugar.
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After following the diet for diabetes type 1 diet least six months, the people on a Mediterranean eating plan also lost an average of 4 pounds. No other diet had a significant impact on weight, according to the findings published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
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Saturated fats from red meat and dairy products are typically less than eight percent of total calories consumed. Other studies have linked Mediterranean diets with reduced risks of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and death from heart attack.
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Though the review found no evidence that vegetarian, vegan or high-fiber diets aided in weight loss, they might still have promise for improving blood sugar control, the report notes. In addition, low-carb, low-glycemic and Mediterranean diets all led to increases in markers of heart health - "good" cholesterol rose by 4 percent to 10 percent, and triglycerides fell by up to 9 percent.
The authors caution that the study could not tease apart the beneficial effects of weight loss - versus the types of foods consumed - in the results seen with some of the diets. Portion control and sustainability are the most important elements of a diet plan for type 2 diabetes, according to Zeratsky, who was not involved in the study. She thinks Mediterranean diets may be more successful because they are easier to maintain than restrictive low-carb or high-protein diets.
Olive oil makes food more palatable and satisfying, and may curb the urge to snack later in the day, she added. But a Mediterranean diet is not the only way to achieve weight loss and improve heart health, Zeratsky said.
It's more important to take a balanced approach, including fruits and vegetables, eating moderate portions and talking to a doctor before embarking on a diabetes type 1 diet. Stay up-to-date on the biggest health and wellness news with our weekly recap.